Computer Full Forms List ||Full Forms List
Absolute Address :
The exact memory location of data or a specific location within a device.
A formulated cell reference that will not adjust when used to calculate the sum of specific cells. Most commonly used in spreadsheet applications.
Access Point :
A networking connection device that is also known as the base station. This is a wireless hardware connection device that connects to a wired network to create wireless operation. Its point of access is a local area network (LAN).
Stands for Artificial Intelligence. This is the area of computer science focusing on creating machines that can engage on behaviors that humans consider intelligent. The ability to create intelligent machines has intrigued humans since ancient times, and today with the advent of the computer and 50 years of research into AI programming techniques, the dream of smart machines is becoming a reality. Researchers are creating systems which can mimic human thought, understand speech, beat the best human chess player, and countless other feats never before possible.
A software technology developed by Microsoft. This is based on other technology Microsoft developed such as; COM (Component Object Model) and OLE (Object Linking and Embedding). Active X defines how applications share information. While Active X gives much more freedom as to how certain applications are viewed, it has inherent security risks.
Device that performs an action or outputs a signal in response to a signal from a computer.
A method of identifying a resource (such as a program) or piece of information (such as a file) on a network. Methods of addressing vary considerably from network-to-network.
A software program that is designed to run once a web page has been accessed. This is usually in the form of banner or popup advertisements. Adware can also be designed to be installed on your system without your consent or knowledge. These forms of adware are usually referred to as “spyware” and are used to monitor your surfing habits so that their software can deliver better targeted advertisements. In other instances, the software can be designed to monitor your keyboard keystrokes so that the author of the software can gain access to your password protected accounts. This type of adware is referred to as “malware” due to its malicious intent.
Aero is the name of Windows Vista’s new graphical interface that gives users an exciting new desktop look and feel. It stands for: Authentic, Energetic, Reflective and Open. It is designed to be very aesthetically pleasing. It’s effects include:
- Glass effects
- Advanced Window Management features
- Desktop Composition which creates a more stable experience
Stands for Accelerated Graphics Port. This interface specification was developed by Intel Corporation. It was designed to give lower costing graphics cards much faster access to the main memory on personal computers.
A formal set of instructions that can be followed to perform a specific task, such as a mathematical formula or a set of instructions in a computer program.
Anything whose behavior corresponds with the behavior of something else, especially if the correspondence varies continuously rather than in steps.
An applet is a small program generally written in the Java programming language that was designed to provide interactivity on web pages.
An application is a program that is designed to perform specific tasks. A few examples of some popular applications are:
- Microsoft Windows Microsoft Word
- Adobe Photoshop
- Internet Explorer
Application Server :
This is a specialized server based in a client/server network that has the sole responsibility of running specific applications within that network.
Or ArchiePlex which is an Archie gateway for the World Wide Web. It can locate files on Anonymous FTP sites in the Internet.
This usually defines old files that are no longer in use and are stored for possible future use or reference.
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU):
Arithmetic Logic Unit. This is a mathematical core circuitry that applies to all computers central processing units (CPU). ALU mathematically and logically calculates the results of binary data.
It stands for “American Standard Code Information Exchange” and is pronounced (ask-ee). A standard code or protocol for displaying characters and transferring data between computers and associated equipment. It was developed for the purpose of information exchange among the following:
- Associated equipment
- Data communications systems
- Data processing systems
There are 128 standard ASCII codes each of which can be represented by a 7 digit binary number: 0000000 through 1111111.
In computing, this stands for “Active Server Pages”. Developed by Microsoft and is designed as a web server extension which is a default scripting language for writing VBScript.
A root directory batch file that is responsible for executing commands at system startup.
Stands for “Audio/Video Interleaved”. To date, AVI is the most common format for audio/video data on the personal computer.
This computer term describes the main line or series of connections in a network. The backbones are connection points where high-speed data on the Internet connects to networks.
To copy files to a second source or media in an effort to safeguard the original version. When computer, the first rule is to backup your files regularly. Even if you think you have the most reliable of computers, you just never know when its time is up. It is recommended that you keep your backup copy in a separate place from the original.
A measurement of how much data that can be sent through a connection. The measurement is usually in bits per second.
The total number of digits available in a number system.
A method of transmission that sends a digital or analog signal in its original form, not changed by modulation. While this form of transmission can be much more reliable than its Broadband counterpart, it is much slower.
Batch File :
A file that has the .BAT extension. This file usually contains a sequence (or batch) of commands. A batch files set of commands can be executed all at once by the batch file name rather than by each individual command name.
Pronounced bawd>. This term is named after J.M.E. Baudot who invented of the Baudot telegraph code. Commonly, the baud rate of a modem is how many bits it can send or receive per second. Technically, baud refers to the number of times per second that the carrier signal shifts value. As an example, a 1500 bit-per-second modem actually runs at 375 baud, but it moves 4 bits per baud (4 x 375= 1500 bits per second).
Stands for Basic Input/Output System. The BIOS gives the computer a little built-in starter kit to run the rest of softwares from floppy disks (FDD) and hard disks (HDD). The BIOS is responsible for booting the computer by providing a basic set of instructions.
A basic numbering system that consists of ones and zeros.
(Binary DigIT) This refers to a single digit number. It is either a 1 or a zero. The binary digit is the smallest unit of computerized data.
A file format used for digital imagery. This format maps an image pixel (or bit). All computer systems use this file format. Some of the common types of bitmap file formats would be: BMP, GIF, JPEG, PCX, PNG, TGA, TIFF
(Slang term for a Weblog) A blog is a person journal that can be accessed publicly and allow people to comment on the previously posted comments. When someone posts a comment to a blog this is called “blogging”. The person that owns the blog is called a “blogger”. Most typically, blogs are updated on a daily basis and use the most basic of formats so that a person with very little background in computing can easily figure out how the blogging system works.
Also known as Blu-ray Disc. This is an optical disc format that was developed to enable recording, playback, and rewriting of high-definition (HD) video. This technology has a storage capacity far greater than that of traditional DVDs. A single-layer disc can hold up to 25GB while a dual-layer disc can hold up to 50GB. DVD disc technologies use a red laser to read and write data. Blu-ray uses a blueviolet laser (hence the name). The benefit of the blue-violet laser over the red laser is its ability to focus the laser spot with greater precision because of its shorter wavelength. A red laser’s wavelength is 650nm while the Blu-ray’s wavelength is 405nm.
Radio technology that connects electronic devices without using a cable. Data and voice can be exchanged at ranges of up to 10 meters without the need for devices to be lined up together.
A type of mathematical logic named after its designer George Boole. This binary algebraic system is used primarily in switching circuits and database searches. Search engines use logical operators called, Boolean Operators (AND, OR, NOT).
- AND: Narrows a keyword search by collecting all terms present in the same document
- NOT: Prevents retrieval of unwanted documents containing a keyword.
- OR: which broadens a keyword search by linking related terms.
Boot Disk :
This refers to a diskette that is formatted to actually boot your computer from. They were created as a backup tool in case the normal boot method (hard disk) has failed.
A bridge is a computer networking device used to make a connection and pass along packets of data between two networking computers using the same protocol.
A browser is the software used for viewing pages on the web. Two examples are Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator.
A place, especially in RAM, for the temporary storage of data for the purpose of speeding up an operation such as printing or disk access. Data from a buffer is available more quickly than data from where the buffer got it. Typically buffers get data before it is needed so it will be ready quickly when it is needed. Similar to cache.
Buffered Memory :
Using a buffer to isolate the memory from the controller reduces the load on the chipset. This allows for more memory chips to be used.
A bus is a grouping of wires that allow the flow of data from one area of the computer to another. It is thought of that a bus represents a highway that the data travels through in the computer system. In personal computing, some refer to a bus as the Internal bus which connects all of the devices to the CPU and memory. Also, you may hear the term expansion bus, which connects the expansion board with the CPU and memory.
A byte is a computer data transfer or data storage measurement. One byte equals 8 bits.
Descendant of the C language. The difference between the two languages is that C++ is objectoriented. C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs and is a very popular language for graphical applications.
Cable Modem :
A cable modem is a type of Internet connection that is transmitted through a coaxial cable. The benefits of this technology are that you are able to achieve much faster speeds through a cable connection and that most homes are already setup with a cable TV setup, making the Internet connection very simple.
A very high speed type of memory that is similar to random access memory (RAM). The difference in RAM and Cache is that the Cache memory is on the server side and the RAM is stored in the computer system. Cache is much faster than RAM but they both serve the same purpose and that is to remember previously accessed information. Most commonly, the Cache memory is to remember the previously visited web page so that the computer itself doesn’t have to spend its resources providing the page.
Cache RAM :
Cache (commonly referred to as SRAM) is responsible for storing frequently requested instructions and data. It is a small block of high-speed memory located between the CPU and the main memory. When your computer processor needs data, it will check the Cache first to see if it is there. If the data is not there, it will retrieve it from the slower main memory.
A method of connecting circuits together in series to make the output of one, the input of the next. This kind of end-to-end connectivity is useful in extending the distance of a network.
(Compact Disc Read-Only Memory) A durable and low cost circular optical storage device widely used to store large amounts of information on a personal computer.
A 36-pin parallel port interface standard that most printer manufactures conform to.
Stands for Color Graphics Adapter. Introduced by IBM as their first microcomputer color standard. This graphics card allowed a maximum of four colors at a resolution of 320 x 200 or two colors at 640 x 200.
The “Common Gateway Interface”. CGI provides a gateway for HTML pages to interact with other applications.
A channel in computing is a specific bandwidth and frequency combination.
A client is commonly referred to as a program or a process that requests information from other programs or processes. A web browser is a good example of a client. Another example would be an email client such as Outlook Express.
A temporary data (text and graphics) storage facility used when transferring data to a new location.
Clock Speed :
The clock speed is the frequency which determines how fast devices that are connected to the system bus operate. The speed is measured in millions of cycles per second (MHz or megahertz) and is generated by a quartz crystal on the motherboard which acts as a kind of metronome. Devices that are synchronized with the clock may run faster or slower but their speed is determined by multiplying or dividing a factor by the clock speed.
Most commonly, CMOS refers to a battery powered chip that resides on the Motherboard and is responsible for retaining certain system information (date, time and some system setup parameters) when the computer system is turned off.
Stands for Common Business Oriented Language. A computer programming language invented during the second generation of computers and designed to meet the needs of business. Although less often used today, it was well-suited for writing programs that process large files and generate reports.
Cold Boot :
A cold reboot also referred to as a hard boot. This occurs when a computer user must switch the computer system off from the main power switch. This process bypasses the normal shut down procedure of the operating system. A cold boot can also be the result of a power failure but is usually performed by the user as a last resort because of either a system failure or a “hung” state.
Stands for Component Object Module. This is a Microsoft standard created to allow for the communication of computer components (or objects) on the same computer system. This specification is very useful because of its ability to integrate many distributed application services in one package.
This is an application that converts a programming language into a machine language program.
A computer is a programmable machine designed to sequentially and automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations.
Central Processing Unit. In a microcomputer, a processor on an IC chip (called a microprocessor) that serves as the heart of the computer. It interprets and carries out instructions, performs numeric computations, and controls the peripherals connected to it. Often the entire system unit is called the CPU.
Critical Mass :
The scale or volume at which processes become self-perpetuating. In Web publishing, it is said that after achieving a certain amount of material and resources, it will create a self-sustaining chain reaction.
Stands for Cascading Style Sheets.
A cursor is a blinking indicator designed to mark the place of text where a person may be working within a document.
Author William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer describes a more highly developed form of the Internet and who originally coined the term Cyberspace. The word Cyberspace is currently used to describe the whole range of information resources available through computer networks.
This refers to the information that is stored on a computer system.
Anything that accepts data is a database. A pile of newspapers is a database. A computer database has the ability to manipulate that data. It is possible to attach applications to that database to search the contents.
Data Communications :
The moving or sharing of encoded information between two or more data sources using an electronic medium.
Data Rate :
A speed measurement that calculates how fast information is moved from one place to another. This is usually measured in bits.
Daughter Card :
Often called Daughter Board. it is a printed circuit board that plugs into another circuit board (usually the motherboard). A daughter card is similar to an expansion board, but it accesses the motherboard components (memory and CPU) directly instead of sending data through the slower expansion bus. It is different from other expansion boards in the system due to it often having pins, plugs, sockets or connectors.
Stands for “Double Data Rate.” A type of advanced SDRAM designed to deliver data at a double rate of speed for a given clock frequency. DDR is used in some of the newer video cards such as Nvidia GeForce.
Decimal Number System :
There are 10 digits i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 available in decimal number system. It is known as Base 10 system.
A software, hardware or circuit that is designed to translate a coded or scrambled signal in to a readable form. A common use for this is by cable companies that scramble a signal until a subscriber becomes authorized to view the signal. The cable company then decodes the signal in to a viewable form.
This is a process used by some phone companies that convert an analog signal in to digital signal for use by computer systems.
Once an operating system finishes loading and you are able to see the graphical background and program icons, this is said to be your “desktop”. The electronic desktop is a metaphor for the actual desktop at your home or office in which you will find your many business tools.
Desktop Window Manager (DWM):
This new visual style (Aero Glass) and look in Windows Vista is powered by Windows Vista’s Desktop Window Manager. A video card supporting the Longhorn Display Driver Model (LDDM) system is necessary to view Aero Glass.
Dial-Up Line :
This is a telephone line that is connected to a server. When it is called, tones are exchanged between the server and the devise calling in order to attach.
Dial-Up Networking :
This is a feature that was used by the Windows 95, 98 and Unix operating systems. It allows for the connection of other computer systems over the Internet using a phone line connected to a modem.
. Digital :
A system that defines data in a discrete, non-fluctuating (i.e., non-analogue), numerical method. Similar to a binary system
Developed by Microsoft for its Windows operating systems. This technology was designed to provide a much broader gaming or multimedia environment. In the later versions of DirectX, more attention to 3D graphics have been applied. It works by giving software developers direct access to low-level functions of a PC’s peripherals by providing a set of application programming interfaces (APIs).
In computing, this refers to the separate entities of a file system. A directory can contain thousands of files and folders used as a means of adding or updating data and is usually an organized searchable reference.
Dynamic Link Library. This refers to a file that contains executable code that can be used by many different programs at the same time.
Domain Name Service. This service changes alphabetical domain names in to IP (Internet protocol) addresses. While domain names, such as 5StarSupport are very easy to remember, the Internet is made up of IP addresses. Here’s how it works, a company or organization settles on a domain name to use. They then purchase the unique name from a DNS server. The organization then purchases a hosting package from an Internet hosting service. The organization can now upload all of their web site information to the host using a special code supplied by the DNS server.
A device that attaches to a computer to control access to a particular application. Dongles provide the most effective means of copy protection. Typically, the dongle attaches to a PC’s parallel port. DOS: Stands for Disc Operating System. This is a command line operating system that was created by Bill Gates while he was working for IBM. The Windows operating systems are designed to run on top of the DOS system. It is more commonly referred to as MS-DOS. The MS stands for Microsoft.
A domain is a computer, web site or network that is connected to the Internet. A typical domain name looks like this: www.5starsupport.com. The “www” prefix signifies that it is connected to the world wide web. The “5starsupport” or body usually indicates the company name and the suffix “com” is the indicates that it is a commercial site.
Domain Name :
This is a unique identifier of an organization attached to the Internet. Domain names are used to make a web site easier to remember rather than trying to remember a series of long numbers known as an IP (Internet Protocol) address.
Dot Pitch :
An image measurement taken from center to center between stripes or phosphor dots on monitor. The smaller the number, the better the image quality. This measurement is taken in millimeters and it is considered that 0.28 mm is the minimum acceptable display quality.
Generally to copy data from a remote computer/internet to a local computer is called Download.
Stands for Dots Per Inch. An image measurement standard that measures an images resolution as it applies to printers. It measures the images pixels in one square inch.
Dynamic Random Access Memory. This is a common type of random access memory that is used in personal computing.
Drive Bay :
An allocated space inside a computer case where an internal device such as a; floppy, CDROM or DVD-ROM is mounted.
A driver is a software program that is the driving force behind a device.
Digital Signal Processor. DSP is a technology that is commonly used in devices such as sound cards, fax machines, cellular phones, modems, high-capacity hard disk drives and televisions.
Desk Top Publisher (ing) – A PC Term that describes a program that enables you to design, create and print a variety of projects such as letterheads, birthday cards, calendars, business cards, invitations etc. that would have previously only been possible by using the services of an outside printers business.
Dual Core :
This refers to a new Central Processing Unit (CPU) structure. The difference between a single core and dual core is that a dual core system has two CPU’s that are electronically wired together. These two CPU’s wired together in parallel gives twice the performance than that of its single core counterpart.
Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc. This popular technology was first introduced in 1996. Its ability to store large amounts of information reliably made this a very common optical disc storage technology. It can hold between 4 to 28 times more data than that of the CD.
ECC Memory :
Error Checking and Correction. A method of detecting and correcting system memory errors by adding additional bits and using a special algorithm.
EDM (Electronic Document Management):
Using specific document management software, users can capture and retrieve documents in image, audio, video and text forms.
Short for Extended Data Output, a type of dynamic random access memory. EDO memory is much faster than DRAM because it can access more than one block of information at a time.
Electrical Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. This type of memory can be reprogrammed and erased electronically repeatedly by using a device programmer which provides an electric surge. This memory is similar to DRAM, however not as fast, but EEPROM will retain its data even in the event of a power loss
Stands for Electronic Mail. This is a system of relaying messages across the Internet, from one Internet user to another.
When adding an element from one document to another document. Example: A sound file is created in one document, then it is embedded in an HTML document for publication to the Web.
Encryption is the process of converting data into “unreadable code” is so that unauthorized people cannot understand the content.
Engine: (as in “Search Engine”):
This is the working part of a database or application.
Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. It is pronounced “ee-prom”. This type of memory is designed to hold information until exposed to ultraviolet light in which case the information or memory is erased. Once exposed to this ultraviolet light, the EPROM can then be reprogrammed.
A networking system that enables high speed data communication over coaxial cables. The Ethernet network system supports TCP/IP, AppleTalk, Novell Netware, and other network protocols. An Ethernet (LAN) connection is 10 Mbit/s or 100 Mbit/s, and is used to connect many computers that can all “talk” directly to each other. Normally they will all talk with a few servers and printers, but the network is all-to-all. The distance is normally limited to below 1 km.
Executable File :
An executable files or has a file extension of .EXE. It is a type of binary file designed to be directly executed by a computer system. Unlike source files, an executable file cannot be read by humans. They are specifically designed to be interpreted as a program.
Another term for Expanded Memory is EMS (Expanded Memory Specification). In a DOS based system there is 1 MB (megabyte) of address space available for main memory. 384K is for high-memory and 640K is for the conventional memory. To expand the memory capabilities, this technique is applied to the DOS system.
Expansion Card :
This is a circuit card that it attached to the motherboards expansion slot. By using an expansion card, you can increase systems functionality by providing the access to additional devices or features.
Extended Memory :
This memory expands upon a DOS systems existing conventional memory.
External Modem :
A modem that is separate from the actual computer system and is self-contained in its own box. Because of the additional expense of creating the housing for the external modem, they tend to be a little more expensive that its internal modem counterpart.
An extranet is similar to an intranet. They both use Internet protocols. The difference is that the extranet is designed to give a certain amount of access to outside users where an intranet is securely set behind a firewall and intended to be viewed by company employees or members of an organization only.
Stands for File Allocation Table. Basically this is a table of contents in a directory that tells the computer what all is in there. Look at your Netscape cache, you’ll see a FAT. It’ll be the first file.
Fax Modem :
A device you can attach to a personal computer that enables you to transmit and receive electronic documents as faxes.
The process of ‘fetching’ a data or instruction item from memory and writing it to a register. The ‘fetched’ item is then either executed (instruction), or acted upon (data).
Fiber Optic :
An alternative to copper wire for transmitting information.
File Sharing :
This is the most important feature of the Internet. This is a method of allowing one server to give the same file to many different end users.
A computer or a file storage device on a network that allows other computers on the same network access to stored information and resources.
Software (programs or data) that has been written onto read-only memory (ROM). Firmware is a combination of software and hardware. ROMs, PROMs and EPROMs that have data or programs recorded on them are firmware.
This type of non-volatile memory has the ability to retain its information even when there is no power source. Flash Memory is best known for its use in hand help devices where it is used to store the operating system and core applications. Other devices that use Flash Memory are: Digital Cameras, Audio Players, Cell Phones and Pagers, USB Drives, Printers
A graphical representation of planned activities, operations or tasks. Usually, flow charts are used to show the progress of a certain activity. They can also be used to show the variance between specific operations.
A web page element that uses text fields, radio buttons and check boxes to process predefined data. Forms also allow users to interact with an application by allowing information to be passed dynamically between two points.
FORmula TRANslator. Developed in 1954 by IBM, it is a high-level programming language, most widely used for scientific and engineering applications because it has excellent mathematical functions. Many programmers consider it to sacrifice “elegance” for speed of numerical manipulations.
This is a shortened version of Free Software. Programmers offer their work without wanting pay in return.
Front Side Bus :
This is the main pathway for data transfer in a PC. It connects all of a computers major components, such as; memory, AGP socket and chipset.
Stands for File Transfer Protocol.
As in Common Gateway Interface (CGI). It is a piece of software that allows two items to communicate with each other. They are used to make connections between computers and systems inside that computer.
Pronounced “jif.” Stands for Graphical Interchange Format. It is an image format created by Compuserve.
2 to the 30th power (1,073,741,824) bytes. One gigabyte is equal to 1,024 megabytes. Gigabyte is often abbreviated as G or GB.
It’s an acronym that stands for Garbage In, Garbage Out.
A method of distributing information by computers that has waned in popularity to ftp. Most gopher files contain only text information with few images, audio, or video components. Files can be downloaded with a similar protocol like ftp.
GUI – Graphical User Interface:
A program interface that takes advantage of the computer’s graphics capabilities to make the program easier to use. Well-designed graphical user interfaces can free the user from learning complex command languages. On the other hand, many users find that they work more effectively with a command-driven interface, especially if they already know the command language.
The process by which two devices initiate communications. Handshaking begins when one device sends a message to another device indicating that it wants to establish a communications channel. The two devices then send several messages back and forth that enable them to agree on a communications protocol.
A hard reboot (also known as a cold reboot) is when power to a computer is cycled (turned on and off) or a special reset signal to the processor is triggered (from a front panel switch of some sort).
This restarts the computer without first performing the usual shut-down procedure. (With many operating systems, especially those with disc caches, after a hard reboot the system may well be in an “unclean” state, and require that checks and repairs to on-disc file system structures be performed before normal operation can begin.) It may be caused by power failure, be done by accident, or be done deliberately as a last resort because nothing else to retrieve the system from a “hung” state works.
Mass storage devices store programs and data even when the power is off; they do require power to perform read and write functions during usage.
The term hardware covers all of those parts of a computer that are tangible objects. Circuits, displays, power supplies, cables, keyboards, printers and mice are all hardware.
Helper Application :
This is an application your browser uses to manipulate a downloaded program.
Hexadecimal Number System :
There are 16 unique digits available in Hexadecimal number system. These are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, A, B, C, D, E, F where A denotes 10, B denotes 11, C denotes 12, D denotes 13, E denotes 14 & F denotes 15. Thus any number formed is a combination of these digits. It is known as Base 16 system.
High Memory Area :
In DOS -based systems, the high memory area refers to the first 64K of extended memory.
A computer on a network that provides services to other computers on the network. Unless you have your own server, you need a hosting company who provides a server or computer that is connected to the internet and makes your web pages available to the rest of the internet.
List of URLs saved within the Mosaic Web browser. (Bookmark in Netscape)
Hyper Text Markup Language. It is a collection of structuring and formatting tags used to create Web pages.
Stands for HyperText Transport Protocol. Common protocol used to communicate between World Wide Web Servers.
This is a mark-up language that allows for non-linear transfers of data. The method allows your computer to provide the computational power rather than attaching to a mainframe and waiting for it to do the work for you.
Stands for International Business Machines
A small video display that acts as an activation link when clicked on.
Image Map :
Typically, an image map is graphical representation (also known as “hot spots”) containing predefined clickable hyperlinks. A good example of an image map would be a map containing clickable outlined images of each city. Once the user clicks the image, they are taken to a separate web page containing information regarding that particular city.
Internet Message Access Protocol IMAP is gradually replacing POP as the main protocol used by email clients in communicating with email servers.
Instruction Set :
The set of instructions that the microprocessor can execute.
Integrated Circuit :
Another name for a chip, an IC is a small electronic device made out of a semiconductor material.
This is any type of point where two different things come together. Most often, the term is used to describe the programs between you and your computer like Windows, OS/2 and others. What you see on the screen is the interface between you and what your computer is doing.
Internal Modem :
A modem that resides on an expansion board that plugs into a computer. In contrast, an external modem is a box that attaches to a computer’s COM port via cables.
The Internet is a super-network. It connects many smaller networks together and allows all the computers to exchange information with each other. To accomplish this all the computers on the Internet have to use a common set of rules for communication. Those rules are called protocols, and the Internet uses a set of protocols called TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). Many people equate the World Wide Web with the Internet. In fact, the Internet is like the highway, and the World Wide Web is like a truck that uses that highway to get from place to place.
A private network for communications and sharing of information that, like the Internet, is based on TCP/IP but is accessible only to authorized users within an organization. An organization’s intranet is usually protected from external access by a firewall. See also: Extranet.
Stands for Internet Protocol Security. A set of protocols developed by IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) and designed to provide protection of sensitive data over unprotected public networks, such as the Internet.
Stands for Information System.
Integrated Services Digital Network. ISDN is a public global network capable of transmitting voice, data and images at speeds up to 2 Mbit/s. The digital technique can transport more signals on the same telephone line than the traditional analogue technique and enables a range of new services.
Stands for the International Standards Organization. Someone has to say what is the standard for transferring data. These people are it. You’ll find them in Paris.
A type style with slightly slanted characters, used for emphasis. Best used to set off quotes, special phrases, and foreign words, italic letters have a redesigned structure that allows them to slant to the right. The first italic type was designed by Aldus Manutius in AD 1501 and was based on the handwriting style of that time. Furthermore, lowercase letters were in italics while capital letters were Roman (or vertical stance)
A high-level programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. Java was originally called OAK, and was designed for handheld devices and set-top boxes. Oak was unsuccessful so in 1995 Sun changed the name to Java and modified the language to take advantage of the burgeoning World Wide Web.
This is a language very close to Java that allows for more interaction with the viewer. It is much more forgiving than Java as doesn’t require it’s own window in which to work.
Pronounced “J-Peg.” Stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group. It’s an image format that allows for compression when stored.
A metal bridge that closes an electrical circuit. Typically, a jumper consists of a plastic plug that fits over a pair of protruding pins. Jumpers are sometimes used to configure expansion boards. By placing a jumper plug over a different set of pins, you can change a board’s parameters.
JIT (Just-In-Time) :
This is a type of Java compiler that interprets a class file, and then compiles the information into native code.
Stands for thousands of bits per second.
A keyboard is used mainly for typing text into your computer.
(Key Generator). Refers to a program that will automatically generate a registration or serial number. Its usual purpose is to eliminate software piracy.
Kilobyte (KB) :
This is about a thousand bytes of space. In reality, it’s two to the 10th power or 1,024 bytes.
Keyboard-Video-Mouse switch. A piece of hardware that connects two or more computers to a single keyboard, monitor and mouse. Imagine you have a row of 4 computers that all serve as file servers. Why waste money buying 4 monitors, 4 keyboards and 4 mice. With a KVM switch you can connect all 4 computers to one monitor, keyboard and mouse and to switch between them when needed.
A computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings. However, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. A system of LANs connected in this way is called a wide area network (WAN).
Abbreviation of liquid crystal display, a type of display used in digital watches and many portable computers. LCD displays utilize two sheets of polarizing material with a liquid crystal solution between them. An electric current passed through the liquid causes the crystals to align so that light cannot pass through them. Each crystal, therefore, is like a shutter, either allowing light to pass through or blocking the light.
Abbreviation of light emitting diode, an electronic device that lights up when electricity is passed through it. LEDs are usually red. They are good for displaying images because they can be relatively small, and they do not burn out. However, they require more power than LCDs.
A program specifically designed to combine or link together a large number of programs forming a single executable instruction set for these programs that can be loaded in to the systems memory for quick execution.
A version of UNIX that runs on a variety of hardware platforms including x86 PCs, Alpha, PowerPC and IBM’s product line. Linux is open source software, which is freely available; however, the full distribution of Linux along with technical support and training are available for a fee from vendors such as Red Hat Software and Caldera.
Live Script :
This is the former name of Java Script. There are few updates between the two.
This is broken down into two categories:
- Software Logic – The sequence of instructions performed by a program.
- Hardware Logic – A set of circuit elements that perform a function.
To attach to a computer. It has also come to represent your User ID command.
Login Script :
This is the small text file that is run by the server gateway to make the attachment between it and your computer.
Low Voltage Differential. A differential logic scheme using lower voltage levels than HVD.
A file containing a sequence of instructions that can be executed as one command. These commands can be in the form of a key, symbol or name. As an example, one symbol could represent a predefined list of commands.
Mostly a mainframe is only a mainframe when compared to a desktop computer. It’s bigger and much more powerful. Sometimes it’s called a server or CPU.
Short for Master Boot Record, a small program that is executed when a computer boots up. Typically, the MBR resides on the first sector of the hard disk.
(1) Objects on which data can be stored. These include hard disks, floppy disks, CD-ROMs, and tapes. (2) In computer networks, media refers to the cables linking workstations together. There are many different types of transmission media, the most popular being twisted-pair wire (normal electrical wire), coaxial cable (the type of cable used for cable television), and fiber optic cable (cables made out of glass). (3) The form and technology used to communicate information. Multimedia presentations, for example, combine sound, pictures, and videos, all of which are different types of media.
Megabyte (MB) :
About a million bytes of space. Actually it’s 2 raised to the 20th power or 1,048,576 bytes of space.
Internal storage areas in the computer. The term memory identifies data storage that comes in the form of chips, and the word storage is used for memory that exists on tapes or disks. Moreover, the term memory is usually used as a shorthand for physical memory, which refers to the actual chips capable of holding data. Some computers also use virtual memory, which expands physical memory onto a hard disk.
A category of computer that is generally used for personal computing, for small business computing, and as a workstation attached to large computers or to other small computers on a network.
A silicon chip that contains a CPU. In the world of personal computers, the terms microprocessor and CPU are used interchangeably. At the heart of all personal computers and most workstations sits a microprocessor. Microprocessors also control the logic of almost all digital devices, from clock radios to fuel-injection systems for automobiles.
Stands for Music Instrument Digital Interface. It allows a computer to store and replay a musical instrument’s output.
A nearly obsolete term used to describe an older computer usually around the size of a refrigerator. This computer was used by businesses for processing transactions, accessing databases and running reports. These minicomputers typically accommodated between 10 – 300 users simultaneously.
Basic timeslot unit used for upstream data bursts in the DOCSIS standard.
This is a word created out of the beginning letters of two other words: MOdulation and DEModulation. The words mean the changing of data from digital (computer language) to analog (phone line language) and then back again. It represents the purpose of your computer’s modem.
A monitor displays information in visual form, using text and graphics.
The main circuit board of a microcomputer. The motherboard contains the connectors for attaching additional boards. Typically, the motherboard contains the CPU, BIOS, memory, mass storage interfaces, serial and parallel ports, expansion slots, and all the controllers required to control standard peripheral devices, such as the display screen, keyboard, and disk drive. Collectively, all these chips that reside on the motherboard are known as the motherboard’s chipset.
A mouse is a small device used to point to and select items on your computer screen.
Stands for MPEG (Moving Picture Expert Group) Audio Layer 3.
Stands for MPEG (Moving Picture Expert Group) – 4.
Stands for Motion Picture Experts Group. A format to make, view, and transfer both digital audio and digital video files.
MSQL (Mini Structured Query Language) :
A lightweight client/server database that is the popular choice for open source developers. It is designed to provide quick access to data while only requiring a small amount of memory.
Multimedia Extensions (MMX):
A technology created by Intel Corporation that enhances audio and video capabilities. MMX is found in Pentium III and later CPU’s and is also found in AMD K6 series CPU’s. Microprocessors that have MMX can handle tasks that usually are handled by a separate component, such as; Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is a common multimedia operation that is normally handled by a separate audio or video card.
This is a piece of hardware that allows one item to take the place of several. An example would be using a multiplexer to allow 10 computers to attach where only one could before.
Stands for Netware Asynchronous Communication Services.
A billionth of a second. Many computer operations, such as the speed of memory chips, are measured in nanoseconds. Nanosecond is often abbreviated as ns.
This a system that sends and receives data.
Network Adapter :
This is a hardware unit that connects a device to a communication line. For wide area networks (WAN), these adapters connect routers to the specific type of connection (T1, BRI) that is installed. For local area networks (LAN), these adapters connect workstations to the LAN (Ethernet or TokenRing) cabling.
Network Card :
Also, Network Interface Card or NIC. This is a component of a computer that enables the computer to communicate with other computers via a direct network connection.
Short for NT File System, one of the file system for the Windows NT operating system (Windows NT also supports the FAT file system). NTFS has features to improve reliability, such as transaction logs to help recover from disk failures.
Something that contains both the data and the application that operates on that data.
Octal Number System :
There are 8 unique digits available in octal number system. These are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. Thus, any number formed is the combination of these digits. It is known as Base 8 system.
(Original Equipment Manufacturer) This is a designation for companies that manufacture equipment that is then marketed and sold off to other companies under their own names.
Stands for Object Oriented Program. A larger program made up of smaller objects.
The most important program that runs on a computer. Every general-purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs. Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers.
A high-end database management software created by Oracle Corporation. Oracle’s relational database pioneered the support of the SQL language which is now an industry standard.
Stands for Point To Point Protocol. It’s a software application that allows an attachment to a server.
A unit of data formatted to transmit through a network. A packet is sent from a source to a destination.
Parallel Port :
A parallel interface for connecting an external device such as a printer.
A portion of a hard disk that functions as a separate unit.
A path can be described as a file’s address on your file system, describing where the file lives: An absolute path gives the complete path, starting at the root directory, or the very top of the file system; A relative path looks for a file from the directory you are currently in down.
Stands for Portable Document Format. A technology developed by Adobe and was designed to capture all of the elements of a printed document and place it in a singe image file.
Peer to Peer:
A type of network in which each workstation has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities. This differs from client/server architectures, in which some computers are dedicated to serving the others. Peer-to-peer networks are generally simpler and less expensive, but they usually do not offer the same performance under heavy loads.
A small keyring-sized device that can be used to easily transfer files between USB-compatible systems. Available in a range of capacities (and in some cases, with an MP3 player built-in). Plug it in to any USB port and it will be automatically detected by the Operating System.
Any external device attached to a computer. Examples of peripherals include printers, disk drives, display monitors, keyboards, and mice.
Personal Computer (PC):
The personal computer, or PC, is designed to be used by one person at a time. This section describes the various kinds of personal computers: desktops, laptops, handheld computers, and Tablet PCs.
Pronounced “Pick,t.” It is another image format.
Packet Internet or Inter-Network Groper; a utility used to determine whether a particular computer is currently connected to the Internet. It works by sending a packet to the specified IP address and waiting for a reply. The computer acronym “PING” was contrived to match the submariners’ term for the sound of a returned sonar pulse.
A diagram or table that describes the purpose of each pin in a chip or connector, or each wire in a cable.
Short for Picture Element, a pixel is a single point in a graphic image. Graphics monitors display pictures by dividing the display screen into thousands (or millions) of pixels, arranged in rows and columns. The pixels are so close together that they appear connected.
A combination of hardware and operating system you use, for example, the “NT platform” is a PC running the Microsoft Windows NT operating system and the “PPC platform” is a Macintosh computer with a PowerPC processor running the Mac operating system. Port This is the connecting component or hardware that allows two computers to attach to one another.
A set of one or more values in a database that uniquely identifies a record in a table.
This refers to low-level objects or older older objects that can be introduced in to a higher-level object to construct a more complex object.
Programming software :
Programming software usually provides tools to assist a programmer in writing computer programs, and software using different programming languages in a more convenient way. The tools include: Compilers, Debuggers, Interpreters, Linkers, Text editors
Proof Theory :
This deals with the actual “logic” of the programming. Using mathematical analysis techniques, the programming language is proof checked.
Proof Theory :
This deals with the actual “logic” of the programming. Using mathematical analysis techniques, the programming language is proof checked.
A processor is a device that processes programmed instructions and performs tasks. Your processor sends and receives information from the different parts of the system (from hardware and software). The speed at which the CPU processes information internally is measured in MegaHertz (MHz) and GigaHertz (GHz). 1 GHz is equal to 1,000 MHz.
Programmable Read-Only Memory (PROM):
A special memory chip that is blank when first purchased. It can be written to by the user by using a special hardware programmer. Once the data is written to it, it cannot be erased or changed.
An agreed-upon format for transmitting data between two devices. The protocol determines the following:
- – The type of error checking to be used.
- – Data compression method, if any.
- – How the sending device will indicate that it has finished sending a message.
- – How the receiving device will indicate that it has received a message.
- Proxy Server:
A server that acts as an intermediary between a workstation user and the internet so that the enterprise can ensure security, administrative control, and caching service.
PS/2 Port :
A type of port developed by IBM for connecting a mouse or keyboard to a PC. The PS/2 port supports a mini DIN plug containing just 6 pins. Most PCs have a PS/2 port so that the serial port can be used by another device, such as a modem. The PS/2 port is often called the mouse port.
A powerful graphics system that delivers a rich imaging model, on-the-fly rendering, anti-aliasing, and compositing of PostScript graphics.
This is to make a computer request of a database.
Radio Frequency Identification :
RFID first appeared in tracking and access applications during the 1980s. It is a method of remotely storing and retrieving data using devices called RFID tags/transponders and is coming into increasing use as an alternative to the bar code.
(Random Access Memory) A configuration of memory cells that hold data for processing by a computer’s central processing unit, or CPU; (see also memory). The term random derives from the fact that the CPU can retrieve data from any individual location, or address, within RAM.
Rambus DRAM technology is a system-wide, chip-to-chip interface design that allows data to pass through a simplified bus.
This is a method of playing sounds invented by Rob Glasser that creates a buffer between the supplying server and your computer. The file is played without downloading it completely.
Real Player :
Developed by RealNetworks, this is a cross-platform multi-media player.
Real Time :
This is method of processing data the moment it is received. Batch mode is a term used for a mainframe computer dealing with data when it has the time.
To restart a computer. In DOS, you can reboot by pressing the Alt, Control and Delete keys simultaneously. This is called a warm boot. You can also perform a cold boot by turning the computer off and then on again.
To restart a computer. In DOS, you can reboot by pressing the Alt, Control and Delete keys simultaneously. This is called a warm boot. You can also perform a cold boot by turning the computer off and then on again.
Generally, to update something with new data. For example, some Web browsers include a refresh button that updates the currently display Web pages. This feature is also called reload.
Refresh Rate :
Refers to the speed in which an image can be flashed or re-drawn on a monitors screen.
Registered Memory :
This memory uses “registers” which are extra chips designed to delay the flow of data. By delaying the data flow, it allows for better control over communication in systems with heavily loaded memory.
In a Windows operating system, the registry is the database of information that stores all of the setup, user preferences, software and hardware configuration information.
Refers to the sharpness and clarity of an image. The term is most often used to describe monitors, printers, and bit-mapped graphic images. In the case of dot-matrix and laser printers, the resolution indicates the number of dots per inch. For example, a 300-dpi (dots per inch) printer is one that is capable of printing 300 distinct dots in a line 1 inch long. This means it can print 90,000 dots per square inch.
Short for Registered Jack-11, a four- or six-wire connector used primarily to connect telephone equipment in the United States. RJ-11 connectors are also used to connect some types of local area networks (LAN), although RJ-45 connectors are more common.
Short for Registered Jack-45, an eight-wire connector used commonly to connect computers onto a local-area networks (LAN), especially Ethernets. RJ-45 connectors look similar to the ubiquitous RJ-11 connectors used for connecting telephone equipment, but they are somewhat wider.
Stands for Read-Only Memory. A semiconductor-based memory system that stores information permanently and does not lose its contents when power is switched off. ROMs are used for firmware, such as the BIOS used in the PC; and in some portable computers, application programs and even the operating system are being stored in ROM.
A device that connects any number of LANs. Routers use headers and a forwarding table to determine where packets go, and they use ICMP to communicate with each other and configure the best route between any two hosts. Very little filtering of data is done through routers. Routers do not care about the type of data they handle.
RSS (Rich Site Summary) :
XML format for distributing news headlines on the Web, also known as Really Simple Syndication.
Serial Advanced Technology Attachment. A computer bus designed to transfer data to and from a hard drive using serial signaling technology. Because SATA cables are thinner than its ribbon type counterpart, they can be connected to more devices while maintaining its signal integrity.
Short for “Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory”. This is a newer type of DRAM that has the ability to run at much higher clock speeds than conventional memory. SDRAM actually synchronizes itself with the CPU’s bus and is capable of running at 100 MHz, about three times faster than conventional FPM RAM, and about twice as fast EDO DRAM and BEDO DRAM. SDRAM is replacing EDO DRAM in many newer computers.
This refers to a material that is not a good conductor of electricity (copper) nor a good insulator (plastic). Silicon and germanium are the most common semiconductor materials.
(Search Engine Optimization) SEO is a process of arranging a web site’s content to obtain high rankings in various search engines (both the site and individual pages), and includes tailoring on-page text (such as headlines and subtitles) as well as choosing the proper keywords for a page’s meta tags.
A sequence of commands that execute orders in a database.
Serial Port :
A port, or interface, that can be used for serial communication, in which only 1 bit is transmitted at a time. Most serial ports on personal computers conform to the RS-232C or RS-422 standards.
This is a mainframe computer that serves the other computers attached to it.
Abbreviation of “Synchronous Graphic Random Access Memory”. This is a type of DRAM used commonly on graphics accelerators and video adapters. Like SDRAM, SGRAM can synchronize itself with the CPU bus clock up to speeds of 100 MHz.
In spreadsheet applications, this would refer to a tab at the bottom of a work sheet that acts as a means to identify or access different sheets within a workbook.
Just like the shell of an egg is the outermost layer, in computer technology, this refers to the outermost layer of a program. Operating systems and applications sometimes provide an alternative shell to make interaction with the program easier. For example, if the application is usually command driven, the shell might be a menu-driven system that translates the user’s selections into the appropriate commands.
This is a peer-to-peer voice over Internet protocol (VoIP). This Internet telephony network was created by the same people that created Kazaa (Niklas Zennström and Janus Friis). It was developed as a free desktop software application that gives users the ability to make free Internet phone calls to other Skype users or you can use the application to place and receive phone calls to and from traditional phone lines for a reduced fee.
Stands for Serial Line Interface Protocol. This is another application that allows for a connection to another computer.
SMS (Short Message Service) :
A popular wireless service that is used for sending and receiving short messages up to a maximum of 160 characters. The service is used for text messaging between cell phones that are on a GSM (Global System for Mobile) network.
Stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.
Stands for “Simple Network Management Protocol”. It was developed in 1988 and has become a standard for Internet work management and used almost exclusively in TCP/IP networks.
In computer technology, a Socket refers to a receptacle that provides a means of communication between two processes. Socket 7: Socket 7 is a connection format used on older processors such as the Cyrix M2, AMD K6 and K6-2. Socket 8: The Socket 8 connection format was exclusively used on Intel Pentium Pro and Pentium II OverDrive processors.
Source Code :
Computer programs or operating systems are originally written by a human being in a programming language. This is called the source code of the software.
Computer software, or just software, is a collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. In other words, software is a conceptual entity which is a set of computer programs, procedures, and associated documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system.
This is to transmit unwanted messages, usually over email, to a great many people.
(Structured Query Language) A specialized programming language for sending queries to databases.
Short for static random access memory, and pronounced ess-ram. SRAM is a type of memory that is faster and more reliable than the more common DRAM (dynamic RAM). The term static is derived from the fact that it doesn’t need to be refreshed like dynamic RAM.
As a web site term, this is used to describe a web page that is not interactive. The webmaster writes information to the source code of a web page and can only be changed by re-writing the source code. A visitor to the web page cannot manipulate its contents.
This refers to a method of concealing data inside of data. The secret information can be hidden inside of an image or sound file so that a normal user would not know that it existed.
A technology that involves the playing of audio or video files in real time over the Internet.
A supercomputer is focused on performing tasks involving intense numerical calculations such as weather forecasting, fluid dynamics, nuclear simulations, theoretical astrophysics, and complex scientific computations.
Stands for Super Video Graphics Adapter. It’s a high level monitor.
In networks, a device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments. Switches operate at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI Reference Model and therefore support any packet protocol. LANS that use switches to join segments are called switched LANs or, in the case of Ethernet networks, switched Ethernet LANs.
Grammatical structuring of data using a special code that defines how this special code is used to form words, phrases or any other allowable constraint.
A combination of the hardware, software, and firmware. A system typically consists of components (or elements) which are connected together in order to accomplish a specific function or set of functions.
System software :
System software provides the basic functions for computer usage and helps run the computer hardware and system. It includes a combination of the following:Device drivers, Operating systems, Utilities, Window systems
System Unit :
A system unit is the enclosure that contains the main components of a computer.
Acronym for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, the suite of communications protocols used to connect hosts on the Internet. TCP/IP uses several protocols, the two main ones being TCP and IP. TCP/IP is built into the UNIX operating system and is used by the Internet, making it the de facto standard for transmitting data over networks. Even network operating systems that have their own protocols, such as Netware, also support TCP/IP.
One of the TCP/IP Protocols. It allows a connection to another computer over dedicated phone lines.
2 to the 40th power (1,099,511,627,776) bytes. This is approximately 1 trillion bytes. 10 to the 12th power (1,000,000,000,000). This is exactly one trillion.
This is what you look at when you’re on the Internet. It’s your computer screen.
A device attached to the end-points of a bus network or daisy-chain. The purpose of the terminator is to absorb signals so that they do not reflect back down the line. Ethernet networks require a terminator at both ends of the bus, and SCSI chains require a single terminator at the end of the chain.
Terminal Emulation :
This is an application that allows your terminal to act as a dumb terminal.
Time Constant :
In electronics, this term refers to a measured amount of time that current or voltage rises or falls across a circuit.
A function that allows a user to switch back and fourth between an OFF and ON position.
In networking, this refers to the physical or logical arrangement of a network. Physical Topology would refer to the connecting of the cables and nodes and the Logical Topology would refer to how the information flows through the network.
Transfer Rate :
The speed at which a disk drive can transfer information between its platters and your CPU. The transfer rate is typically measured in megabytes per second, megabits per second, or megahertz.
Something that occurs without being known to the user.
A device composed of semiconductor material that amplifies a signal or opens or closes a circuit. Invented in 1947 at Bell Labs, transistors have become the key ingredient of all digital circuits, including computers. Today’s microprocessors contains tens of millions of microscopic transistors.
Stands for Technology Without An Interesting Name.
A protocol developed by Quantum Corporation and Intel that supports burst mode data transfer rates of 33.3 MBps. This is twice as fast as the previous disk drive standard for PCs, and is necessary to take advantage of new, faster Ultra ATA disk drives.
This is an operating system developed by AT&T. It’s big push it that it allows one server to service many different end users at one time.
The process of transferring files from a local computer to a remote computer, network or Web server. The usual method of uploading files is done using a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Utility.
Uninterruptible Power Supply. A backup power unit that provides continuous power when the normal power supply is interrupted.
Stands for Universal Resource Locator. It’s a fancy way of saying Internet Address.
Short for Universal Serial Bus, a new external bus standard that supports data transfer rates of 12 MBps (12 million bytes per second). A single USB port can be used to connect up to 128 peripheral devices, such as mice, modems, and keyboards. USB also supports Plug-and-Play installation and hot plugging.
Someone attached to a server or host.
Utility Program :
A program developed to run within an Operating System to perform a specific service.
Stands for Virtual Device Driver.
Stands for Video Graphics Adapter. This is a lower level color monitor.
Virtual Environment :
An environment that uses audio and video computer simulations.
A self-contained operating environment that behaves as if it is a separate computer. For example, Java applets run in a Java virtual machine (VM) that has no access to the host operating system.
Virtual Memory :
When applications call for more random access memory (RAM than is installed on a computer, the operating system will automatically use empty sectors on the hard drive to simulate more memory. However, when this action is performed, a great reduction in the systems performance will be noticed.
A program or piece of code that is loaded onto your computer without your knowledge and runs against your wishes. Most viruses can also replicate themselves. All computer viruses are manmade. A simple virus that can make a copy of itself over and over again is relatively easy to produce. Even such a simple virus is dangerous because it will quickly use all available memory and bring the system to a halt. An even more dangerous type of virus is one capable of transmitting itself across networks and bypassing security systems.
Short for World Wide Web.
Stands for Wide Area Information Servers. Searches large indexes of information on the Internet.
Wide Area Network – A network in which computers are connected to each other over a long distance, using telephone lines and satellite communications. See local area network (LAN).
Stands for WAVeform sound format. Microsoft’s format for encoding sound files.
(Same as blog) This is a publicly accessible personal journal for an individual. Similar to a personal diary, but shared over the web.
Web Client :
When using a web browser to display web pages hosted by a web server, your computer would be acting as a web client.
Web Server :
A computer that runs specific software to serve web pages to the Internet.
Wireless Fidelity – Otherwise known as Wireless Networking, commonly using the 802.11b protocol. Hardware that displays the WiFi logo claims 802.11b compliance should interconnect seamlessly.
An online application that allows users to add and edit web content.
Windows Media Player :
Developed by Microsoft Corporation, this is a audio video player that can also handle MP3 files. The player also has the ability to store your favorite music, video, pictures and recorded TV. From this media player you can sync your media to your portable device. The Windows Media Player is made available for free.
Persons sharing files and data between themselves.
The computer attached to the Internet.
Stands for Word Perfect Graphics.
ZIF Socket :
Zero Insertion Force socket. A special socket for plugging in integrated circuits easily. The socket can be opened with a small lever or screw; the chip is dropped in, then the socket is closed.
Stands for Zone Information Protocol. This is an application that allows for the compression of application files.