Investigatory Project biology for class 12

Investigatory Project biology for class 12

Investigatory Project biology for class 12


This is to certify that this “Biology Investigatory Project” on the topic “Drug Addiction” has been successfully completed by Rahul Sharma of class XII – A under the guidance of Mrs. Sailaja Nayak in particular fulfilment of the curriculum of Central Board of Secondary Education {CBSE} leading to the award of annual examination of the year 2016-17.



I have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals.

I would like to thank my principal Dr. Radhika  and school for providing me with facilities required to do my project.

I am highly indebted to my Biology teacher, Mrs. Suresh Kumar , for her invaluable guidance which has sustained my efforts in all the stages of this project work.

I would also like to thank my parents for their continuous support and encouragement.

My thanks and appreciations also go to my fellow classmates and the laboratory assistant in developing the project and to the people who have willingly helped me out with their abilities.




4Project Report on Drugs Dependence
5Introduction to “drugs addiction”
6Classification of Drugs
7Combinations of Drugs and Alcohol
8How does drug addiction begin?
9Social Disease – Smoking, Drinking, and
Use of Drugs
14End of project


To study drugs, their classification, addictive nature, and prevention from addiction.

Project Report on Drugs  Dependence 

Drugs are prescribed by physicians for the prevention or treatment of diseases, or for increasing the physical and mental performance and are withdrawn as soon as the desired effect is achieved. Repeated use of certain drugs on a periodic or continuous basis may make the body dependence. Such drugs are called psychotropic drugs. They act on the brain and alter behavior, consciousness, and capacity of perception. Hence, they are also termed mood-altering drugs. Some people start taking drugs without medical advice due to one reason or the other and become drugs dependent.



“Drug Addiction” phrase is made by two words:

(1) Drug

(2) Addiction.

What is meant by a drug? 

Any substance, other than food, used in the prevention, diagnosis, all aviation or treatment of a disease is called a drug. A drug may also be defined as a chemical which, when taken in some way after the body function. The drug is also known as a medicine. Generally, the term drugs applied to any stimulating or depressing substance that can be habituating or addictive.

Meaning of Addiction 

Addiction is the habitual, psychological and physiological dependence on a substance or practice. Which is beyond voluntary control. A person who is habituated to a substance or a practice, especially a harmful one, is called an addict.


Classification of Drugs 

There are a large number of drugs on which people become dependent. These are classified into four major groups: sedatives and tranquilizers. opiate narcotics, stimulants and hallucinogens.


Type of DrugExamplesEffect
 Sedatives and TranquilizerBarbiturates, Benzodiazepines Depressing CNS activity give a feeling of Calmness, relaxation, drowsiness.
Opiate NarcoticsOpium, Morphine, Codeine, HeroinOpium, Morphine, Codeine, Heroin
StimulantsAmphetamines, Caffeine, Cocaine Make a person more wakeful, alert and active, cause excitement.
HallucinogensLSQ, Mescalin, psilocybin, Ganja, Charas. Hashish.Alter thoughts, feeling, and perceptions.

Combinations of Drugs and Alcohol

Some addicts use mixtures of drugs to have immediate ‘kid’ or ‘charge’. Simultaneous use of drug and alcohol may produce dangerous effects. including death. When barbiturates and alcohol are taken together, each doubles the effect of the other. A mixture of cocaine and heroin called speedball gives a spontaneous kick of cocaine and prolonged pleasure of heroin.



1.Alcohol + BarbituratesMarkedly increased the depressant effect.
2. Alcohol + AntihistaminesMarked drowsiness
3. Alcohol + Valium Dramatically increases sedative effect.
4. Alcohol + Marijuana or HashishDecreased coordination increased reaction time Impaired judgment.
5. Alcohol + AspirinIncreased changes of damage to gastric mucosa.

Addiction begin?

There are many factors that lead people to drug addiction.

  • Curiosity: Frequent references to drugs by public media create curiosity for having a personal experience of the drugs.
  •  Friend’s pressure: Frequent appreciation of drug experience by friends allures others to start the use of drugs.
  • Frustration and Depression: Some people start taking drugs to get relief from frustration and depression.
  • The desire for More Work: Students sometimes take drugs to keep awake the whole night to prepare for the examination. It is not desirable as it may cause a mental breakdown.
  •  Looking for a Different World: A wrong notion that the drugs open up a new world tempts some young octets to start taking-drugs.
  • .Relief from Pain: A prolonged use of pain-relieving drugs with physician’s advice at times leads to addiction.
  • Family History: Children may take to drugs by seeing their elders in the family.
  • Excitement and Adventure: The young take to drugs to satisfy their instinct for excitement and adventure.



Social Disease – Smoking Drinking, and Use of Drugs

Smoking and drinking and use of drugs frequently or regularly are social diseases. They adversely affect the health of the addicts and the society. Young people take to these habits for fun, show off or curiosity, as an adventure or feeling of freedom, or as a gesture of defiance against the elders who themselves indulge in these activities but check the youngsters.

Other factors that make people take to these vices are the inability to face problems of life indifference shown by members of the family and encouragement or pressure by friends. A temporary escape from the life problems and mental relaxation felt on taking the drugs in the beginning increase person’s interest in them. Soon they become habitual and find in difficult to leave. The daily dose to get the desired effect increases with time.

As in other countries, the menace of drug addiction is spreading in India also. A large number of our young men and women have taken to intoxicants. About 87.6 per cent drug addicts are between the ages of 14 and 25 years.




Sources: It is a native of South Africa, where the Red Indian first started smoking. Now the tobacco plant has spread the world over. It has large, quote to lanceolate leaves and terminal clusters of tubular, white or pink flowers.

Modes of Use: 

Tobacco is used for smoking, chewing and snuffing. Its main stimulating component is poisonous volatile alkaloid nicotine. which causes addiction. Nicotine synthesis occurs in the roots of the plant but it is stored in the leaves. The leaves contain 2 to 8% nicotine. Inhaling tobacco smoke from cigars, cigarettes, biddies, pipes and hubble-bubble is called smoking. The cigar is a roll of tobacco leaf. The cigarette is cut tobacco wrapped in paper. Bidi is tobacco wrapped.

In a piece of leaf. Tobacco smoke is drawn directly from the pipe and through water is hubble-bubble. Smoking may give some temporary relief to the strained nerves but in the long run, it proves a dangerous health hazard. The quantity of nicotine contained in one cigar may prove fatal if injected intravenously into a person. When smoked only 10% of the smoke is inhaled. Hence, no immediate ill effect is observed. Smokers may develop a physiological craving for nicotine and then they cannot give up smoking,

Effect of Nicotine:                                               

  • Nicotine is a low concentration. 
  •  Stimulates conduction of nerve impulses. 
  • Relaxes the muscles. 
  • Releases adrenaline, increasing heart beat rate and pressure. 
  •  Increased blood pressure due to smoking chances the risk of heart diseases. 
  •  Retards foetal growth in expecting mothers and 
  • Causes tobacco addiction. High concentration of nicotine paralyzes nerve cells. 

Other Harmful components of Tobacco Smoke: 

Besides the poisonous nicotine, the tobacco smoke contains carbonmonoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and tar.

Other Effects: 

(1) Smoking effects economy: A smoker not only waste money but also runs the risk of burns and fires. 

(ii) Smoking mars personality: Teeth may become stained. Lips may get discolored and breath becomes foul. A person with a cigarette hanging from the mouth looks odd. 

(iii) Smoking is annoying to others: Cigarette smoke is quite annoying to non-smokers. It may prove even more harmful to them. A smoker should avoid smoking. When in the company of non-smokers. A smoker makes the person nearby person’s passive smokers through inhaling smoke released by him.




Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, flammable, colorless liquid having a penetrating odour and burning taste. It is one of the products of the distillation of fermented grains, fruit juices and starches with the help of yeast enzymes. It is the principal constituent and the intoxicating principle of wines. 

Modes of Use: 

Alcohol is taken in low concentration, as the beer, toddy, and wine and in relatively high concentration as arrack, brandy, whiskey, rum. gin, vodka etc. 


Addiction to alcohol is called alcoholism. Alcoholics are found in all society section of society. Alcohol causes intoxication and thus, acts as a poison. They drinkers begin with small doses. but many of them soon start consuming large doses and become addicts. By the time they realize that drinking in adversely affecting them, it is too late to give it up.


Why People Take to Drinking: 

The drinkers offer one or more of the following reasons for starting drinking

  • Social pressure 
  • Desire for excitement
  • Feeling of independence 
  • Liking of taste 
  • Desire to escape from such realities of life as disappointments and
  • failures and 
  • The desire to offset the hardships and monotony of daily life.


What happens when Alcohol is consumed? 

Alcohol is quickly absorbed in the stomach and upper part of small intestine and reaches all the tissues in minutes. Its oxidation starts at once and a large amount of heat in produced. Since heat is not  needed in the body, it is taken up by the blood and carried to the skin for dissipation. Since the receptors of heat are located in the skin, the rush of blood to the skin gives a false impression of warmth in the body.

The blood supply of internal organs is greatly reduced resulting in fall of temperature in them. The energy released by alcohol is not used in any life process. Rather the energy derived from food is used up in ridding the body of excess heat.

 Is Alcohol A Stimulant?

 Many people take alcohol for stimulation. Actually, alcohol is a depressant, a substance which dulls the senses. It reduces the efficiency of every tissue the body. Any feeling of lift a person may claim to feel is a mistaken impression or an attempt to justify the act in his own mind.



Drug use and addiction cause a lot of disease and disability in the world. Recent advances in neuroscience may help improve policies to reduce the harm that the use of tobacco, alcohol and other psychoactive drugs impose on society.


See H. Abadinsky. Drug Abuse (1989): H. T. Milhorn, Jr., Chemical Dependence (1990); D. Baum, Smoke and Mirrors: The War on Drugs and the Politics of Failure (1996); M. Massing. The Fix (1998): J. Jonnes, Hepcats, Narcs, and Pipe Dreams: A History of America’s Romance with Illegal Drugs (1999): publications of the Drugs & Crime Data Center and Clearinghouse, the Bureau of Justice Statistics Clearinghouse, and the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information.


Reproduction In Organisms Class 12 Notes


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