Organization Of Computer
What is organization with example computer?
Computer memory is a physical device used to store data, information and instructions in a computer temporarily and permanently.
Just as we humans have brain to store data and information, in the same way computer has memory to store data and information. Organization Of Computer
Memory is made up of many small cells that store binary information in the form of bits.
Each cell in memory has a different address, with an address ranging from zero to one less than the memory size.
For example, if the size of computer memory is 64k (here K = kilobytes), the memory units contain 64 * 1024 = 65536 cells. The address of a memory cell ranges from 0 to 65535. Organization Of Computer
Register Memory is the smallest memory of the computer system, which is much faster than the rest of the memory. It is not a part of the primary memory, rather it is located in the CPU in the form of a register, which stores the least amount of data as compared to the rest of the memory.
Register Memory temporarily stores frequently used data, instructions, and memory addresses by the CPU.
It holds the instructions of the program currently running by the CPU. Before any instruction is processed by the CPU, it is stored in the register, then the CPU takes those instructions from the register and processes it accordingly. Organization Of Computer
Data is stored from 32 bits to 64 bits in the register memory. CPU speed depends on the number and size (number of bits) of registers. Organization Of Computer
Cache memory is a very high speed semiconductor memory which provides speed to the CPU. It is a temporary memory in which the data stored gets destroyed as soon as the computer is turned off.
It acts as a buffer between CPU and main memory. Organization Of Computer
It is a small chip-based computer memory that is present between the CPU and the main memory.
It is used to hold the data and those parts of the program which are used most frequently by the CPU.
Primary memory is the main memory of the computer from which data can be accessed very fast. This is the internal memory of the computer. Organization Of Computer
Primary memory is a volatile memory, meaning the data that is in the primary memory remains only as long as the computer remains on, as soon as the computer is turned off, the data stored in the primary memory is also destroyed.
Primary memory is a semiconductor memory. It is more expensive than secondary memory. The capacity of primary memory is very limited and always smaller than that of secondary memory. Organization Of Computer
Communicates directly with primary memory, CPU and cache memory. All the data required by the CPU for processing is stored in the primary memory.
( RAM )Random access memory
RAM which is also known as Random Access Memory is a hardware device which is located in the motherboard of the computer. It is one of the fastest memory type of computer which is directly accessed by CPU. It stores the data of the currently running program in the CPU. Organization Of Computer
It is called “random access memory” because in this we can randomly store the data in any location and can also randomly access it if needed.
ROM is a memory device used by computer manufacturers to permanently store information inside a chip.
It is a “Non-Volatile Memory” in which the stored data and instructions are not destroyed even when the power is turned off or the system is turned off.
Secondary memory is a permanent storage memory which is used to permanently store the program and the output obtained from the execution of the program in the computer. Organization Of Computer
Secondary memory is a non-volatile memory that means all the data and information stored in the secondary memory remains even after the computer is turned off.
Processing device is the most important part of the computer system. Without it the computer cannot function. To do anything with the computer, first of all it has to give some input. Then the output is obtained. Input device is used to give input and output device is used to take output.
Software is a set of instructions and programs that instruct a computer to perform a specific task. It gives the user the ability to work on the computer. Computers without software are just a lifeless box of hardware.
You cannot see the software with your own eyes. Nor can it be touched by hand. Because it has no physical existence. It is a virtual object that can only be understood. Organization Of Computer
Operating System or “OS” is a system software, which acts as an interface between the user and the computer. That is, manages hardware and software programs.
The purpose of an operating system is to facilitate the use of a computer. The user needs an operating system to run other programs in any computing device (desktop, laptop, smart-phone and tablet, etc.). Examples of some well-known OS: Windows, Android, iOS, macOS, Linux and Chrome OS, etc.
Task Performance by OS
- Memory Management
- Processor Management
- Device Management
- File Management
- System Performance
Type Of OS
- Batch Operating System
- Simple Batch Operating System
- Multiprogramming Batch Operating System
- Network Operating System
- Multiprocessor Operating System
- Distributed Operating System
- Time-Sharing Operating System
- Real-Time Operating System
Utility software is one such computer programming system. Those who work to configure, analyze, optimize and maintain the computer. We also call it by the name of “Utility” and “Utilities”.
Such software programs provide additional functionality to your computer.
Such as antivirus, disk repair, backup, file management, networking programs etc. There are some examples of utility software. Organization Of Computer
Level of Programming Language
Low level Language
High Level Language
Machine language is a language of a lower level which contains binary numbers which the computer can execute directly.
Machine language cannot be understood by humans and can only be understood by computers.
Machine language consists of the binary numbers 0 and 1.
Assembly language is a low-level programming language. To convert it into machine language, a software is required which is called assembler.
Assembly language has syntax which is similar to English language. Hence, these can be easily understood by the programmers and the users.