Sodium | Compounds
Sodium (Na) Its atomic number is 11 and mass number is 23. It belongs to group-1, 3rd period and s-block of the periodic table. Its electronic configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 Earth’s crust contains 2.27% sodium by weight. Because of its high reactivity, sodium is always found in combined form.
The ores of sodium are chile salt petre (NaNO3), sodium sulphate (Glauber’s salt, Na2SO4.10H2O), borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O) and brine or common salt (NaCl). It is extracted by the electrolysis of molten NaOH in Castner’s process or molten NaCl in Down’s process.
- It is a light, soft silvery white metal that can be cut through knife.
- It is highly reactive metal, i.e., reacts with air to form sodium oxide (Na2O) and water to form sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrogen (H2). Because of its high reactivity, it is generally stored in the kerosene oil.
- It is soluble in benzene.
- Sodium on reaction with ammonia forms sodamide and on reaction with alcohol, forms sodium alkoxide and hydrogen with acids. It also forms salt and releases hydrogen.
It is used
- as a reducing agent, an alloying metal, an anit-scaling agent.
- as a coolant in nuclear reactors (in liquefied form).
- in making TEL (tetraethyl lead) from the sodium- lead alloy in synthetic reaction.
Compounds of Sodium
Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
It is commonly known as table salt or common salt. It is used as an important component of human’s food. It is used for anti-icing and as a preservative for pickles, meat and fish. It is also used as an important raw material for various materials of daily use such as sodium hydroxide, washing soda, bleaching powder and many more.
Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)
It is commonly known as caustic soda. It is used for manufacturing of soaps and detergents and salts, for pH regulations. It is also used as a laboratory reagents as petroleum purifier in the extraction of sodium.
Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3 ).
Sodium carbonate decahydrate ( Na2CO3 .10H2O) is commonly known as washing soda, and soda crystals. Anhydrous sodium carbonate is soda ash. Its aqueous solution is alkaline. That’s why it is used as a detergent. It is used for removing permanent hardness of water and for cleaning the grease, oil and wine stains from the clothes. It is also used in the production of borax, soap, caustic soda and in paper, paints, water glass, petroleum refinery and textile industry.
Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3)
It is commonly known as baking soda, cooking soda or bread soda. It is used in soda-acid fire extinguishers, in baking bread, cakes and other food items.
Glauber Salt (Na2SO4.10H2O)
It is used in pulp-paper, detergents and drugs industry in the production of water glass. It is also used as drying agent, purgative and in the preparation of sodium sulphide.
Sodium Thiosulphate (Na2S2O3.5H2O )
It is also known as hypo. It is prepared by reacting aqueous solution of sodium sulphate, sulphur with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). It is used in film and photography as a fixing agent. It removes undecomposed AgBr as soluble silver thiosulphate salt. It is also used as an antidote to cyanide poisoning and to remove chlorine (anti-chlor) gas from tap water to be filled in aquariums.
It is chemically sodium ammonium hydrogen phosphate. It is found in human urine. On heating, it gives sodium metaphosphate and ammonia. It is used in microcosmic salt head test in salt analysis.
Sodium | Compounds Sodium | Compounds Sodium | Compounds Sodium | Compounds Sodium | Compounds Sodium | Compounds Sodium | Compounds Sodium | Compounds